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Allergy is an immune response or overreaction to substances that are generally not harmful. The allergy is caused by a highly sensitive immune system, which leads to the wrong immune response. Normally, the immune system protects the body from harmful substances such as bacteria and viruses.
An allergic reaction occurs when the immune system reacts to certain substances (allergens), which are normally harmless, and do not produce an immune response in most people.
When a child has an allergy, the first exposure to an allergen stimulates the immune system to recognize the substance. Any subsequent exposure to the allergen will likely cause symptoms.
When an allergen comes into contact with the body of a person with a sensitized immune system, certain cells release histamine and other chemicals. This release produces some symptoms such as itching, edema, mucus production, muscle spasms, hives, skin rash and other symptoms.
Allergy symptoms can appear more or less intense in both children and adults. Most people have mild, non-life-threatening symptoms, while others have a more severe and dangerous reaction known as anaphylaxis. The part of the body that comes into direct contact with the allergen will be, although only partially, the one that will be most affected by the symptoms.
For example, inhaled allergens typically cause nasal congestion, itchy throat and nose, mucus production, coughing, or wheezing. In general, food allergies can cause: abdominal pain, cramps, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, or serious life-threatening reactions. Plant allergies often cause a skin rash, and drug allergies typically involve the entire body.
The symptoms of allergies vary depending on the allergen that is causing the reaction and where it occurs in the body. Symptoms can include:
- Runny nose. Abundant mucus with sneezing.
- Increased tearing, burning or itching in the eyes. The sensation of itching or burning in the eyes, produces an increase in tears.
- Red eyes, conjunctivitis. The allergy presents with eye irritation, which can affect the conjunctiva.
- Edema in the eyes. Eye inflammation is a consequence of allergy.
- Itching in the nose, mouth, throat, skin or any other area. The discomfort also affects the upper respiratory tract.
- Wheezing. As a consequence of allergy, asthma can be triggered and therefore wheezing can appear in the bronchial tubes.
- Cough. It is usually a dry and unproductive cough as a result of the itchy throat.
- Difficulty breathing. It usually occurs in cases of asthma.
- Urticaria (hives on the skin). It is more common in food allergies.
- Acne. It is advisable not to scratch the skin and to refresh the area with water or damp cloths.
- Stomach cramps. They are common in allergies related to food or drugs.
- Threw up. Sometimes the general malaise can cause nausea and vomiting.
- Diarrhea. It appears in cases of food allergy.
- Headache. It is related to congestion, runny nose, cough, watery eyes and other symptoms that characterize allergic processes.
Some of the diseases related to allergies manifest through the skin or respiratory system. Among the most common are skin eczema and asthma.
The reason for these conditions is that the most common allergens are present in some environmental agents that come into contact with the skin, the respiratory tract or the surface of the eyes such as pollen, mold, dander and dust.
Similarly, allergic reactions can be caused by insect bites, jewelry, cosmetics, and other substances that come into contact with the body.
Allergies that are produced by reaction to certain foods and / or medications are also common. Some people may have a type of allergic reaction to hot or cold temperatures, the sun or other physical stimuli such as friction (rubbing or strong blows on the skin) or contact with certain tissues such as atopic dermatitis and contact dermatitis.
Recent research has found that factors such as genetic inheritance and environmental conditions play an important role in the development of allergies.
Types of allergies that affect children and pregnant women
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Skin allergies. The delicate skin of children reacts against the substance in question and causes dermatitis, itching, rash, eczema, psoriasis, inflammation, redness ... Skin allergies occur when a substance comes into contact with the body, whether they are animals , food, medicine, insects, chemical elements or even the sun.
Allergy to grasses. If your child suffers from a seasonal allergy, you should know these tips for parents of children allergic to grasses. These are guidelines that you should follow so that your child's symptoms of grass pollen allergy are less. Learn how to act if your child has an allergy in spring.
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